BD-Tree: Output-Sensitive Collision Detection for Reduced Deformable Models



We introduce the Bounded Deformation Tree, or BD-Tree, which can perform collision detection with reduced deformable models at costs comparable to collision detection with rigid objects. Reduced deformable models represent complex deformations as linear superpositions of arbitary displacement fields, and are used in a variety of applications of interactive computer graphics. The BD-Tree is a bounding sphere hierarchy for output-sensitive collision detection with such models. Its bounding spheres can be updated after deformation in any order, and at a cost independent of the geometric complexity of the model; in fact the cost can be as low as one multiplication and addition per tested sphere, and at most linear in the number reduced deformation coordinates. We show that the BD-Tree is also extremely simple to implement, and performs well in practice for a variety of real-time and complex off-line deformable simulation examples.

For additional examples, please see our animation, which will be appearing in the ACM SIGGRAPH Visual Proceedings.


Doug L. James and Dinesh K. Pai. BD-Tree: Output-Sensitive Collision Detection for Reduced Deformable Models. ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2004), 23(3), August 2004. [BiBTeX]

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