Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion
Anthony C. Fang, Nancy S. Pollard
ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2003) (2003)

Optimization is a promising way to generate new animations from a minimal amount of input data. Physically based optimization techniques, however, are difficult to scale to complex animated characters, in part because evaluating and differentiating physical quantities becomes prohibitively slow. Traditional approaches often require optimizing or constraining parameters involving joint torques; obtaining first derivatives for these parameters is generally an O(D2) process, where D is the number of degrees of freedom of the character. In this paper, we describe a set of objective functions and constraints that lead to linear time analytical first derivatives. The surprising finding is that this set includes constraints on physical validity, such as ground contact constraints. Considering only constraints and objective functions that lead to linear time first derivatives results in fast per-iteration computation times and an optimization problem that appears to scale well to more complex characters. We show that qualities such as squash-and-stretch that are expected from physically based optimization result from our approach. Our animation system is particularly useful for synthesizing highly dynamic motions, and we show examples of swinging and leaping motions for characters having from 7 to 22 degrees of freedom.

Anthony C. Fang, Nancy S. Pollard (2003). Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion. ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2003), 22(3), 417--426.

author = "Anthony C. Fang and Nancy S. Pollard",
title = "Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion",
year = "2003",
month = jul,
journal = "ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2003)",
volume = "22",
number = "3",
pages = "417--426",
links = "http://graphics.cs.cmu.edu/nsp/projects/spacetime/movies/acfSig03.avi; http://graphics.cs.cmu.edu/nsp/projects/spacetime/spacetime.html; http://graphics.cs.cmu.edu/nsp/papers/acfSig03.pdf",